How do elevated atmosphere CO2 and temperature alter the physiochemical properties of starch granules and rice taste?
Elevated atmospheric CO2 (EC) and temperature (ET) strongly affect agricultural production, but the mechanism through which EC and/or ET influence starch granules and their relationship to cooked rice taste remain largely unknown. Therefore, a field experiment using a popular japonica cultivar grown in a temperature/free-air CO2 enrichment environment was conducted to investigate the responses of volume and fine structure of starch granules and their formation physiology to EC (+200 ppm) and/or ET (+1°C) in 2015–2016. EC markedly enhanced the activity of soluble-starch synthase and granule-bound starch synthase by 28.0% and 27.9% respectively, thereby increasing the long chains and the volume of starch granules. However, EC decreased the activity of starch-branch enzyme by 7.5% possibly via the pathway of ethylene signalling (EC prominently decreased the ethylene evolution rate of rice grains by 28.8%), resulting in a remarkable decrease in α-1′6 glucosidic bonds and significant increase in the iodine-binding capacity and double helix in starch molecules. These EC-induced changes in morphology and fine structure of starch granules synergistically altered the thermal properties of rice flour and eventually improved the cohesiveness and taste of cooked rice, as suggested by the significant relationships between them. [Emphasis added.] ET partially offset the beneficial EC effects in most cases. However, few remarkable CO2 × temperature or CO2 × year effects were detected, indicating that the effects of EC on starch granules and rice taste less varied with meteorological conditions. These findings have important implications on rice palatability and for the development of adaptive strategies in the starch industry in future environment.
This article appeared on the Science of the Total Environment website at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969720361210]]>