Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and its Interaction with Temperature and Nitrogen on Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): A Meta-analysis

By Mekides Woldegiorgis Gardi et al.


The general aim of this meta-analysis is to synthesize and summarise the mean response of barley yield variables to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and its interaction with temperature and N fertilization.


The present study quantitatively synthesized the response of barley to eCO2 and its interaction with temperature, and Nitrogen (N). A meta-analysis procedure was used to analyse five yield variables of barley extracted from 76 articles to determine the effect size and the magnitude in relation to eCO2 and its interaction with temperature and N.


CO2 enrichment increased biomass (23.8%), grain number (24.8%), grain yield (27.4%), and thousand grain weight (5.6%). However, responses to eCO2 were affected by genotype, additional stress, and experimental conditions. In comparison, genotype “Anakin” shows the highest response of biomass (47.1%), while “Genebank accessions” had a higher grain number (46.1%) and grain yield (57.1%) under eCO2. The maximal enhancement of barley yield was observed when plants grow under a combination of eCO2 and higher nitrogen fertilizer (>100 kg ha-1). Nevertheless, biomass (-12%), and grain yield (-17%) responses were lower when eCO2 is combined with high temperature (>25 °C). It was further noted the response of barley yield to eCO2 was higher in the growth chamber than in other CO2 exposure methods. Moreover, comparing pot-rooted versus field-rooted barley plants, a higher response of biomass and grain yield was observed for pot-rooted plants.


Overall, results suggest that the maximal barley production under eCO2 will be obtained in combination with high nitrogen fertilizer and optimal temperature (21-25 °C).

The full article appeared on the ResearchSquare website at


Join our effort to build a greener future.

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.